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Health & Fitness

Eye examination: how and methods of diagnosis

Why get diagnosed

Doctors recommend undergoing vision diagnostics annually, even if the patient is not worried about anything. Only in this case, it is possible to identify eye diseases in time and take them under control in a timely manner.

With a properly selected correction or treatment, the progression of diseases can not only be slowed down but also completely stopped! The effect will depend on at what stage in the development of visual impairment or eye pathology treatment began.

However, in the early stages of development, many diseases are asymptomatic. And even in the presence of symptoms, not all patients realize the seriousness of the situation and turn to a specialist.

That is why it is important to undergo a diagnostic examination every year, especially if you are at risk of:

  • The presence of visual impairments (myopia or hyperopia) in one or both parents;
  • Previously diagnosed diseases and disorders;
  • Age – over 50;
  • Daily use of the computer for more than 2 hours.

Modern methods of vision diagnostics

Today, diagnostic capabilities in ophthalmology have advanced significantly, although traditional examination methods remain.

Visual acuity assessment

To determine visual acuity, specialists use two methods – classical and computer.

The classical method is represented by reading letters according to Sivtsev’s tables. The patient closes one eye and reads out the letters on the last lines he saw. Today it is not only a printed poster with 12 rows of letters but also signs projectors that display optotypes on a metal screen. They allow you to more accurately determine the visual acuity and the quality of the selected correction, as they have additional tests.

For examining children who do not yet know numbers, there are separate tables with images of figures and animals.

Also, specialists carry out computer diagnostics of vision using a special device – an auto refractometer. With its help, the study of refraction and the strength of the curvature of the cornea is carried out. The patient sits down at the device and looks at the mark.

Checking visual acuity allows you to identify disorders such as myopia and hyperopia, including age-related.

Strabismus check

To detect latent or explicit strabismus and determine the angle of strobism, the doctor conducts special tests.

The most accurate device for determining the angle of strabismus is the synoptophore. The patient must align the two pictures by moving the optical heads.
the doctor will be able to determine the angle of deviation of the eye from the axis.

Checking for astigmatism

To identify or confirm astigmatism, as well as the selection of vision correction, the ophthalmologist conducts special tests, including a “radiant figure”.

The patient alternately closes one eye and looks at the image of the figure – black rays on a white background. If the patient notes that some rays seem darker or fatter to him than others, this may indicate the presence of astigmatism. To confirm the diagnosis, the ophthalmologist may perform a series of additional examinations and tests.

Examination of the anterior segment of the eye and fundus

The device allows you to explore almost all parts of the visual organ.

The patient fixes the head on a special stand, the ophthalmologist
moves the microscope of the device to the level of the patient’s eyes and focuses

Examination of the anterior segment of the eye reveals newly formed vessels, pathologies of the cornea, conjunctiva, iris, and eyelids. Also, according to the results of the examination, lens disorders, including cataracts, can be diagnosed.

These include eye trauma, the presence of diabetes mellitus or other systemic diseases in the patient, color vision disorders, and other symptoms.

A slit lamp with special lenses is used to examine the fundus. The study reveals retinal pathologies, the appearance of tumors in different parts of the eye in the early stages, glaucoma, and other diseases.

Measurement of intraocular pressure

Tonometry helps diagnose glaucoma. For this, the ophthalmologist uses non-contact and contact tonometers that measure intraocular pressure.

 

Keratotopography

Scanning the eye with a laser beam, aimed primarily at assessing the sphericity of the cornea. With the help of a keratotopograph, the doctor diagnoses keratoconus.

What to do if problems are identified

the specialist selects means of vision correction – glasses or contact lenses.

the doctor may prescribe an additional examination, if necessary.
If there is no need for further examination, the ophthalmologist will determine the treatment plan.

conclusions

A vision test includes painless procedures that allow you to identify not only visual impairments but also pathologies of the organ of vision.

There are three types of checks in the “Happy Look” optics salons :

  • Express – includes a visual acuity test, takes no more than 15 minutes;
  • Full – includes a comprehensive check with the selection of spectacle or contact correction. Does not provide for the detection of eye pathologies;
  • Reception of an ophthalmologist – includes a vision test and additional examination methods aimed at identifying pathologies of the optic organ.

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